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SEMESTER SPRING 2017
Introduction To Psychology (PSY101)
Assignment No. 02
Due Date: 17th May 2017 Marks: 20

Assignment Objectives:
This assignment has been designed to make students:
· Familiarized with levels of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
· Evaluate the role of nervous system in human life


Question 01:(15)
You have read about Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in lecture 11. He has
given following three levels:
1. Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality
2. Level 2 - Conventional morality
3. Level 3 - Post-conventional morality
Your task is to discuss the characteristics of each level keeping in view your own
personality and experiences.

 

While attempting the assignment, please follow the instructions carefully
· You need to write each level separately
· Description of each stage must not exceed 200 words
· Relate the characteristics of each level with your life
· If you have experienced any problem related to these levels then please report it as
well.
Marking Scheme: 5+5+5
Question 02 (5)
Discuss any five interesting facts about nervous system.


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PSY101 Assignment NO.2 Complete Solution File :)

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_Y7HIAROab8YTBtWGEyWlAyazg

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PSY101 - Introduction to Psychology Assignment No. 02 Solution and Discussion Spring 2017 Due Date May 17, 2017

Question 01


Marks: 20

You have read about Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in lecture 11. He has given following three levels:

 

 

  1. 1.                   Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality
  2. 2.                   Level 2 - Conventional morality

 

  1. 3.                   Level 3 - Post-conventional morality

 

 

Your task is to discuss the characteristics of each level keeping in view  your own personality and experiences.

 

 

While attempting the assignment, please follow the instructions carefully

?  You need to write each level separately

 

?  Description of each level must not exceed 200 words

 

?  Relate the characteristics of each level with your life

?  If you have experienced any problem related to these levels then please report it as

 

well.

 

Marking Scheme: 5+5+5

 

 

Question 02 (5)

 

 

Discuss any five interesting facts about nervous system.

 Note:

Only in the case of Assignment,                                            24 hours extra / grace period                                                  after the due date

is usually available to overcome uploading difficulties which may be faced by the students on last date.  This extra time should only be used to meet the emergencies and above mentioned due dates should always be treated as final to

avoid any inconvenience.

PSY 101
2ND ASSIGNMENT IDEA SOLUTION
QUESTON : 1


Level One:
Pre-conventional Morality Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
Level Two:
Conventional Morality Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
Level Three:
Post-Conventional Morality Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation

Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation
Lawrence Kohlberg: "Physical consequences of an action determine its goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. Avoidance of punishment and unquestioning deference to power are valued in their own right, not in terms of respect for an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975) 

Summary: The concern is for self - "Will I get into trouble for doing (or not doing) it?" Right or good behaviour is associated with avoiding punishment.
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
Lawrence Kohlberg: Right action is "that which instrumentally satisfies one's own needs and occasionally the needs of others." "Human relations are viewed in terms like those of the marketplace; elements of fairness, reciprocity and equal sharing are present, but they are always interpreted in a physical or pragmatic way. Reciprocity is a matter of 'you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours,' not of loyalty, gratitude or justice." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975)

Summary: The concern is "What's in it for me?" Still egocentric in outlook but with a growing ability to see things from another person's perspective. Action is judged right if it helps in satisfying one's needs or involves a fair exchange.


Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
Lawrence Kohlberg: "Good behavior is that which pleases or helps others and is approved by them. There is much conformity to stereotypical images of what is majority or 'natural' behaviour. Behavior is frequently judged by intention. 'He means well' becomes important for the first time. One earns approval by being 'nice.'" (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975) 

Summary: The concern is "What will people think of me?" and the desire is for group approval. Right action is one that would please or impress others. This often involves self-sacrifice but it provides the psychological pleasure of 'approval of others.' Actions are also judged in relation to their intention.


Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
Lawrence Kohlberg: "Right behavior consists in doing one's duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order for its own sake." A person in this stage "orients to society as a system of fixed rule, law and authority with the prospect of any deviation from rules as leading to social chaos." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975)

Summary: The concern now goes beyond one's immediate group(s) to the larger society ... to the maintenance of law and order. What is right is obeying the law of society. One's obligation to the law overrides one's obligations of loyalty to one's family, friends and groups. To put it simply, no one or group is above the law.


Possible Stage 4 responses to Heinz Dilemma:
As her husband, Heinz has a duty to save his wife's life so he should steal the drug. But it's wrong to steal, so Heinz should be prepared to accept the penalty for breaking the law.
The judge should sentence Heinz to jail. Stealing is against the law! He should not make any exceptions even though Heinz' wife is dying. If the judge does not sentence Heinz to jail then others may think it's right to steal and there will be chaos in the society.
An example of Stage 4 reasoning in a school setting would be a prefect who found his best friend who is also the head prefect breaking a school rule. The prefect said he was sorry that he had to book him (his best friend) as he could not make any exceptions. The law is the same for everybody.
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
Lawrence Kohlberg: "Generally with utilitarian overtones. Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and in terms of standards which have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society ... with an emphasis upon the possibility of changing law in terms of rational consideration of social utility (rather than rigidly maintaining it in terms of Stage 4 law and order)." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975) 

Summary: The concern is social utility or public interest. While rules are needed to maintain social order, they should not be blindly obeyed but should be set up (even changed) by social contract for the greater good of society. Right action is one that protects the rights of the individual according to rules agreed upon by the whole society.

Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
Lawrence Kohlberg: "Right is defined by the decision of conscience in accord with self-chosen ethical principles appealing to logical comprehensiveness, universality and consistency. These principles are abstract and ethical (the golden rule, the categorical imperative) and are not concrete moral rules like the Ten Commandments. At heart, these are universal principles of justice, of the reciprocity and equality of human rights, and of respect for the dignity of human beings as individual persons." (Duska, R. and Whelan, M., 1975)

Explanatory Notes:

The Golden Rule: "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."
The Categorical Imperative: "Act so as to treat any rational being as an end-in-himself and never merely as a means." In other words, a moral law that is unconditional or absolute and which does not depend on any ulterior motive or end. Compare "You shall not steal" with "Do not steal if you want respect in the community." The former is an end-in-itself ... a categorical imperative.
Summary: The concern is for moral principles ... an action is judged right if it is consistent with self-chosen ethical principles. These principles are not concrete moral rules but are universal principles of justice, reciprocity, equality and human dignity.


Inadequacy of Stage 6 reasoning: Our conscience is not an infallible guide to behaviour because it works according to the principles we have adopted. Moreover, who or what determines these universal principles?

A vivid illustration of our conscience not being an infallible guide is the story of the Sawi people of New Guinea (now called Irian Jaya). In the early 1960s, they were cannibals. In Sawi legend, their heroes weren't those who took the greatest number of heads, but those who were the most deceitful in befriending their victims before taking their heads. Friendship before betrayal would not prick their conscience because treachery was an ideal. So when missionaries, Don and Carol Richardson told them the story of Christ's life, who do you think was the real hero to the Sawi people? Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed Jesus! ( Source: Peace Child by Don Richardson )


Conclusion
Although moral reasoning does not necessarily lead to moral action, the latter is based in part on one's capacity to reason about moral choices. Kohlberg was more concerned with the reasoning of the action than the action itself. And that reasoning when acted upon becomes our motivation.

Jesus made it clear that our motivation is just as important as our action (Matt. 6:1-18 c.f. Acts 4:36-5:11). Therefore, we (parents) need to go beyond living an exemplary lifestyle to sharing and explaining the reasons of our actions. If we don't, our children may attribute wrong reasons (and values) to our right actions!

We could also teach moral reasoning by discussing moral dilemmas that our children are likely to face in their daily lives ... probing for & challenging their reasoning and sharing a biblical perspective. In the context of moral dilemmas, biblical action flows from the following:


Knowing the issues involved in a moral dilemma
Understanding the biblical imperatives, principles and values pertinent to the moral dilemma
Believing in these imperatives and principles
Integrating them into our value structure
Having the desire and commitment to obey or follow them


QUESTION 2 ANSWER:

There are millions of nerve cells in the human body. This number even exceeds the number of stars in the Milky Way.
The human brain alone consists of about a 100 billion neurons. If all these neurons were to be lined up, it would form a 600 mile long line.
In humans, the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, while the left side of the brain controls the right side.
The diameter of the neurons can range between 4 to 100 microns.
In a child developing inside the womb, neurons grow at the rate of 250,000 neurons per minute.
By the time of its birth, the baby's brain consists of around 10 million nerve cells.
The human spinal cord consists of around 13,500,000 neurons. The cluster of nerves located at the base of the spinal cord are most sensitive.
The weight of the brain in average adult males is 1375 grams, while in females it is 1275 grams. - This does not mean men are smarter, just to make that clear :)
And as we grow older, the brain loses a gram each year.
At a given point of time, only four percent of the cells in the brain are active, the rest are kept in reserve.
The nervous system is very quick, it can transmit impulses at a tremendous speed of 100 meters per second. The speed of message transmissions to the brain can be as high as 180 miles per hour.
Sodium ions and potassium are necessary constituents to ensure proper functioning of the nervous system. Even Vitamin B is considered to be beneficial for it!
There are 43 different pairs nerves which connect the central nervous system to every part of our body. Twelve of these nerve pairs are connected to the brain, while the remaining 31 are connected to the spinal cord, which is why it's so important to get your back checked 

Note.
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PSY101 Assignment#02 idea solution of assignment 

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