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2nd q koi explain kr skta hai

bhi solution kahan hai, mujhay tu samajh nahi a rahi, please link post keray koi.

Assignment No.2
Q1: Your task is to read Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory in detail and compare the stages of psychosocial development with your life that how successfully you passed through following stages: (15).
Solution:
Industry vs. Inferiority:
Industry versus inferiority is the fourth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of six and eleven.
The Social World Expands
School and social interaction play an important role during this time of a child’s life. Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
During the earlier stages, a child’s interactions centered primarily on caregivers, family members and others in their immediate household. As the school years begin, the realm of social influence increases dramatically Friends and classmates play a role in how children progress through the industry versus inferiority stage.
Schoolwork Helps Build Competency
At earlier stages of development, children were largely able to engage in activities for fun and to receive praise and attention. Once school begins, actual performance and skill are evaluated. Grades and feedback from educators encourage kids to pay more attention to the actual quality of their work.
During the industry versus inferiority stage, children become capable of performing increasingly complex tasks. As a result, they strive to master new skills. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.
According to Erikson, this stage is vital in developing self-confidence. During school and other social activities, children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as reading, writing, drawing and solving problems.
Kids who do well in school are more likely to develop a sense of competence and confidence.
They feel good about themselves and their ability to succeed.
Children who struggle with schoolwork may have a harder time developing these feelings of sureness. Instead, they may be left with feelings of inadequacy and inferiority.
At this stage, it is important for both parents and teachers to offer support and encouragement. However, adults should be careful not to equate achievement with acceptance and love. Unconditional love and support from adults can help all children through this stage, but particularly those who may struggle with feelings of inferiority.
Children, who are over praised, on the other hand, might develop a sense of arrogance. Clearly, balance plays a major role at this point in development. Parents can help kids develop a sense of realistic competence by avoiding praise and rewards, encouraging efforts and helping kids develop a growth mindset. Even if children struggle in some areas of school, encouraging kids in areas in which they excel can help foster feelings of competence and achievement.
An Example of Industry versus Inferiority
Imagine two children in the same 4th-grade class.
Olivia finds science lessons difficult, but her parents are willing to help her each night with her homework. She also asks the teacher for help and starts to receive encouragement for her efforts.
Jack also struggles with science, but his parents are uninterested in assisting him with his nightly homework. He feels bad about the poor grades he receives on his science assignments but is not sure what do to about the situation. Eventually, he just gives up, and his grades become even worse.
While both children struggle with this aspect of school, Olivia received the support and encouragement she needed to overcome these difficulties and still build a sense of mastery. Jack, however, lacks the social and emotional encouragement he needed. In this area, Olivia will likely develop a sense of industry where Jack will be left with feelings of inferiority.

Identity vs. Role confusion:
Identity versus confusion is the fifth stage of ego psychologist Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage occurs during adolescence between the ages of approximately 12 and 18. During this stage, adolescents explore their independence and develop a sense of self.
Development during the Adolescent Years
Teen behavior often seems unpredictable and impulsive, but all of this is part of the process of finding a sense of personal identity.
Parents and family members continue to exert an influence on how teens feel about themselves, but outside forces also become particularly important during this time. Friends, social groups, schoolmates, societal trends and even popular culture all play a role in shaping and forming identity.
Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will remain insecure and confused about themselves and the future.
Resolving the crisis at this stage of development involves committing to a particular identity. This might involve committing to a career path, deciding what social groups to associate with and even developing a sense of personal style.
Those who are successful develop fidelity, a psychological virtue characterized by the ability to relate to others and form genuine relationships. This ability plays an important role in the upcoming stage known as intimacy versus isolation.
So what happens to those who do not end up successfully forming an identity at this point in development? Kids who are not allowed to explore and test out different identities might be left with what Erikson referred to as role confusion. These individuals are not sure who they are or what they like. They tend to drift from one job or relationship to another, never really sure what they want to do with their lives. Instead of feeling a sense of personal cohesiveness, they are left feeling disappointed and confused about their place in life.
Intimacy vs. Isolation:
As a college graduate, I can promise you that in each and every psychology course you take in your undergrad career, you’ll going to hear about Erik Erikson nearly as much as you hear about Sigmund Freud. It’s not a bad thing, in fact, because of this, I know thousands of facts about the man himself… plus I know his psychosocial stages of development by heart. For example, here are a couple of fun facts that I picked up during my four years: Erikson didn’t have a college degree, yet he held professorship at several colleges (UCLA, Harvard, and Yale) during his lifetime. How did he get so far with merely high school education? He may not have attended a prestigious university; Erikson did earn a certificate in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Clinic. Also, his birth name wasn’t Erik Erikson. It was Eric Abrahamsen, then Erik Hamburger, after his mother remarried. He changed his name when he came to America perhaps as a way to establish his identity apart from Germany and his family—as if to isolate himself from his past and the people who raised him… interesting, right? For a man who championed connectedness, he seemed a little disconnected from his roots.
Erik Erikson was a developmental psychologist from Germany. He himself struggled with identity formation, a topic that Erikson would someday write extensively on in his works. Born to a Jewish mother and absent father, Erikson spent his whole young life wondering who he was—his mother remarried when Erikson was a small child, but didn’t tell him that his stepfather wasn’t his real father for years. His struggle with identity developed when he discovered the truth.
Erikson studied under Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud, the founder of the psychoanalytic branch of psychology, which asserts that early development plays a heavy role in the outcome.  Like her father and Anna herself, Erikson’s view of psychology is very much psychoanalytic.
Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development revolve around the individual passing through a crisis and if it is resolved, gaining a new virtue. If the outcome went south, the person fails to complete that stage, making it very difficult or impossible to complete the other stages after the failed one. When this happens, a person’s identity and personality become more of a mystery to them.
Q2: Lawrence Kohlberg posited in his theory of moral development that moral dilemmas evoke/arise cognitive conflicts. What do you think does it really happen in today’s world? Write your answer keeping in view Pakistani people and add examples to justify your answer! (5).

Solution:
BY some interesting coincidence the calendars for the fateful year 1947 and for 2014 are identical.
I trust our stars are not also in identical alignment. Given the sterling qualities of Sadie and Amen of the majority of our leaders, legislators and politicians; the blurring of the distinction between our friends and foes; and the increasing
isolation that we have managed to put ourselves into, one prays that 2014 would bring wisdom and a sense of national empathy to those who ‘govern’ us; dedication and honesty of purpose to those who write, interpret and are responsible for the implementation of our laws; and the spirit of tolerance, brotherhood and peace that is totally lacking in the version of Islam we are inflicting on ourselves and presenting to the world.
What does the coincidence portend?
Year 1947 was a year of dismemberment and carnage — one of the greatest in recorded history. 1947 was also the year this fledgling state — without a finite future but with hope and a belief in the vision of a great leader — came into being.
Today we have all of the above without a single, visionary, leader.
As we go into 2014, I pray the Almighty cleanses the collective brains of Pakistan and India with divine detergent.
We have squandered the legacy, the freedoms and the opportunities that could have raised our joint one-and-a-half billion people into a socioeconomic powerhouse.
Perhaps the memory of the pointless bloodshed of 1947 and the 66 largely-wasted years may let us get back on to the path so many millions willingly gave their lives for and from which we have deviated so far.
Pakistani courts let 3 out of every 4 terror suspects go says US State Depts. US State Department report said that Pakistan was incapable of prosecuting terror suspects, since three in four defendants are acquitted. NCD data suggests that 65,446 murdered, 16,448 women raped, 88,161 kidnappings between (2008 -2013)
It said that while Pakistan maintained it was committed to prosecuting those accused of terrorism, its Anti-Terrorism Court’s (ATC) rulings last year tell a different story showing that Pakistan’s acquittal rate of prosecuting suspected terrorists was approximately 75%.
The report further said that Islamabad had not closed loopholes which allowed terrorist groups and criminals to launder money (hawala), also mentioning former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto’s unresolved case as an example of how the investigative methods had to improve to collect better evidence, since the post assassination footage clearly showed that the crime scene in Rawalpindi was hosed down before evidence collection.
The report complains that Pakistan’s ‘weak implementation’ of a UN Security Council resolution which lists banned terrorist organizations remained a concern.
Wiki leaks cables released earlier also showed that many of the more than 1,000 recently released US embassy cables relating to Pakistan speak of Pakistan’s battle against religious extremism and militancy, and the inability to being suspects to justice.
While some of the cables show concern on the trends observed by US diplomats, others simply relay what was being reported in the Pakistani media without comment.
The London Post punished a report on 13 March 2014 according to which 65,446 murdered, 16,448 women raped, 88,161 kidnappings in Pakistan from March 2008 – March 2013.
In Pakistan during 2008-13 democratic rules when corruption and terrorism touched the sky, people of Pakistan and armed forces paid a very heavy price. Those politicians and officials who let the corruption and mafias flourish did it by design and is not a mere coincidence? They have been successful in alienating and damaging two groups of people who are the backbone of Pakistan i.e. Armed Forces and Overseas Pakistanis. Armed forces and security forces were left vulnerable to deal with the land and Qabza mafias who are funding these terrorists attacking army. Similarly overseas Pakistanis who send billions of $ to Pakistan $10 billion in first 8 months of this year 2014, also left open to abuse by the same mafias. Crime rate is alarmingly increasing with the ratio of 24.12%.
That is how terrorism and terrorists in Pakistan have become self-financing. On the one hand incompetent and corrupt police completely failed to protect the life and limbs of its citizens on the other higher judiciary has become ‘obsessed’ security institutions and armed forces personals.  They have failed to monitor the lower judiciary, which is corrupt to bones and failed to provide justice. That’s why people prefer to go to Taliban for justice or middle classes in cities to find a mafia don or biggest criminal for justice. Police however especially in Punjab collect money monthly from the mafias and gangs. It is police who have left public to the wolves.
These mafias have become national security threat to Pakistan. They are responsible for harboring and financing terrorist as well as become tool for the foreign agents. Armed Forces are not deigned to fight with these mafias, which is fully backed, by judiciary and police. As a result we see jail breaks en mass, we see witnesses murdered, terrorist and criminals released and most worrying trend is that these mafias are now offering services to foreign powers and getting paid in foreign banks.
In Pakistan 2008 – 2013, more than 65,446 persons were murdered and 22,253 people were killed in road accidents during the last 5 years, the crime data said. The NCD indicates that 1,366 women were gang-raped and 15,082 were raped while 2,640 people were kidnapped for ransom. Moreover 88,161 men and women were kidnapped or abducted during the political governments, which completed their tenure recently with much fanfare.
The 5-year crime statistics of the Punjab provided alarming figure indicating that total 723,051 criminal cases were recorded including 268,173 against person (52,219 in 2008, 51,898 in 2009, 53,958 in 2010, 56,701 in 2011 and 53,397 in 2013) and 454,878. Property crimes were – 81,546 in 2008, 85,110 in 2009, 91601 in 2010, 104242 in 2011 and 92,379 in 2012.
In Pakistan crime against person and property are on the rise the average of 24.12% as compared to the figure of 2007. Pakistan’s corrupt police and judicial system especially at lower level seemingly have contributed to the causalities among the armed forces fighting with the terrorists and security forces. Corrupt officials at all levels have made the infiltration of enemies with the ranks and files, which resulted in the huge increase in the deaths of armed forces. Police corruption has made the job of the anti terror personnel not only difficult but almost impossible with the emergence of various criminal mafias and syndicates. Terrorism in Pakistan is now self financing through land grabbing, drugs, extortion and white collar crimes in stock exchanges, money laundering.
According to ARY TV crime program: ‘land and Qabza Mafia in Johar Town Lahore is beyond the reach of ‘iron hands’ of Chief Minister Punjab Shabaz Sharif? Land grabbing increased 10 folds with the arrival a serving Additional Session Judge in 2006 in Johar Town. The reported judge Safdar Bhatti is so power hungry that he changed the name of street after his surname ‘Bhatti Street’ in Johar Town. Surely judge cannot flourish without the support and collusion of local police who has become partner in crimes? What are the high court’s doing on these issues? However it is a very sensitive area as some jihadist leaders are living in this area including Iran and Saudi Arabia.
The point is that terrorists and criminals supporting them could have been detected, arrested and brought to justice had police and lower judiciary doing their job and not become a ‘sellable commodity’. More military lives could have been saved and incidents like mass jail breaks avoided. Some politicians are settling their scores with the Armed Forces following foreign agendas otherwise there was no reason in the increase of crimes by 24.12%.
Crimes in Pakistan between:  2008 – 2013
Summary: 1,953,209 cases were reported in Punjab; 430,814 in Sindh; 658,386 in KP; 45,071 in Baluchistan; 7,527 in Gilgit-Baltistan; 29,188 in AJK.
The NCD indicates that the crime in the country constantly increased with the average of 17.86% as compared to the figures of 2007. The crime against person and property shows upward trend with the average of 24.12% as compared to the figure of 2007.
Crimes like gang rape, kidnapping for ransom, bank robbery and other heinous offences created unrest and sense of insecurity among the people of the country. According to the National Crime Data (NCD), total of 3,170,889 offences, including 456,552 against persons and 611,852 cases against property, were recorded during the last five years 2008-2013.)
The last five years of democratic government have seen a phenomenal rise in heinous crimes all over Pakistan as the rulers in general have been busy in loot and plunder of the national wealth and in appointing their blue-eyed boys on every key position in almost every department including police.
Such has been the dismal performance of those who ruled the country from 2008-2013 that peace remained a far cry and even a comparison of the crime figures of this period with the last two years of Musharraf’s dictatorial rule show the so-called democrats failing.
Crimes like gang rape, kidnapping for ransom, bank robbery and other heinous offences created unrest and sense of insecurity among the people of the country. According to the National Crime Data (NCD), total of 3,170,889 offences, including 456,552 against persons and 611,852 cases against property, were recorded during the last five years.
The NCD indicates that the crime in the country constantly increased with the average of 17.86% as compared to the figures of 2007. The crime against person and property shows upward trend with the average of 24.12% as compared to the figure of 2007.
All in all when crimes increase most affected are ‘middle classes’ and when they are threatened brain drain starts and ultimately country collapse like Iraq and Libya. It is middle classes who run the country. One can only hope as a Chilean poet said: ‘you can kill all the flowers but you cannot stop the SPRING’.

Thank you Sir

PSY101 Assignment Solution
Question 1:
Erik Erikson stages of psychosocial development:
Basically there are 8 stages of psychosocial development, but here we are asked to define only three… i.e
• Industry vs. Inferiority
Age range: School going children (6-11 years)
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands, success leads to sense of Competence, while failure results in feeling of inferiority
(U need to relate it with ur life at that age..)
• Identity vs. Role confusion
Age range: Adolescence (12-18 years)
Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity, in this stage, success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself while failure lead to role confusion and a weak sense of self..
(U have to analyze ur life either u get success or failure in this stage)
• Intimacy vs. isolation
Age range: Young adulthood (19-40 years)
At this age human being need loving and intimate relationship with others,,, In case of success one built a strong bond between relationships..
While in case of failure person confront loneliness and isolation..
(I hope u all are above the age of 19 so u can explain this stage as well)
Question 2:
Moral dilemmas arises cognitive conflicts
Yes, it happens in today’s world, Moral dilemmas give rise to conflicts.
Like If a person makes conflicting promises he or she faces a moral conflicts.
Pakistani people are the best victims of Moral conflicts in my Opinion.
You can take examples from ur daily life events or from different Organizations.. like
• Example of ur friends,, who makes conflicting promises..
• Student who cheat in Exams.
• Employee non sincere behavior in a particular organization.
• Government teacher behavior towards school and students.
All of these are the examples of moral dilemmas which leads to cognitive conflicts.

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