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• The person learns (after instruction) to refocus attention and to concentrate in such a way that he/she is totally detached from all the unwanted stimulation for as long as he/she desires.

• For focusing attention a word, syllable, or sound may be repeated e.g. the way we do in transcendental meditation (TM).

• In some forms of meditation some object e.g. a marble, crystal, candle flame, or picture may be used 

• The main idea is to concentrate.


Physiological changes due to meditation

• Decreased heart rate

• Lowered blood pressure

• Lessened oxygen usage

• Changed brainwave pattern


How does meditation affect?

• It gives a heightened feeling of relief and relaxation.

• Concentration is sharper.

• Insight is improved and problem solving better.

• It has a positive effect on health, and in some studies longevity has been found to be associated with prolonged practice of TM.

Drug Induced States: Changes in consciousness due to use/abuse of different drugs.

Psychoactive drugs:

• Drugs that affect behavior and mental processes including cognitions, emotions and perceptions.

• More deep rooted and adverse effects are caused by the addictive drugs; drugs causing dependence.


Effects of Drugs

• Withdrawal effects

• Overdose effects


Categories of Drugs

• Stimulants

• Depressants

• Narcotics

• Hallucinogens


Why do people take drugs?

  • Addiction
  • Role modeling
  • Peer pressure
  • Stress/ Relaxation
  • Thrill/Excitement/Experimenting

Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior that takes place as a result of practice and/or experience.

Learning usually refers to improved performance, acquisition of skills, and a positive change in behavior; however the change may also be negative in nature


There are varieties of learning:

I. Verbal learning: Basically man is a verbal learner who learns about the environment through experiences

ii. Motor learning: It involves the practical application of the learned phenomena. e.g. learning the skills like playing football, tennis, cricket etc; or the training of technicians whose motor skills need to be highly efficient.

iii. Problem solving: Problem solving tasks usually involves trial and error and primarily includes verbal processes. While doing the problem-solving task, individual learns many responses that can be helpful for him in different situations


Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and a consequence


Consequences of Behavior:


Reinforcement:  Increasing the probability that preceding behavior will be repeated through a stimulus.

Positive Rein forcer: A stimulus whose introduction brings about an increase in the preceding response.

Negative Rein forcer: A stimulus whose removal reinforces and leads to a higher chance that the response bringing about this removal will be repeated. 


Punishment: An unpleasant or painful stimulus whose introduction following a certain behavior decreases likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

No reinforcement: This also deters or stops a behavior from being repeated.

Applications of Operant Conditioning in Everyday Life

• Child rearing

• Classroom management

• Teaching of skills

• Animal taming

• Advertising

PSY101- Introduction to Psychology (Midterm MCQ’s)


Laws of perceptual organization were proposed by which of the following school of thought?

       ► Functionalism

       ► Structuralism

       ► Gestalt school

       ► Behaviorism



Today psychology is considered as the scientific study of which of the followings?

       ► Mind

       ► Conscious experiences

       ► Behavior and mental processes

       ► Soul


Who among the followings is known as “father of Greek medicines”?

       ► Socrates

       ► Plato

       ► Aristotle

       ► Alcameon  


Who among the followings gave the concept of Insight?

       ► Max Wertheimer

       ► Wolfgang Kohler

       ► James Rowland Angell

       ► James Mckeen Cattell


Who among the followings regarded as the “Father of Medicine”?

       ► Hippocrates

       ► Kraepelin

       ► Plato

       ► Socrates


Who among the followings is the author of the book “The Origin of Species”?

       ► Emil Kraepelin

       ► Paul Broca

       ► Wilhelm Griesinger

       ► Charles Darwin


Which of the following is incorrect about insulin-shock therapy?

       ► In this therapy the comma is caused because of a reduction in blood sugar level.

       ► It has found to be effective with schizophrenics, addicts etc., if used with psychotherapy.

       ► It was developed by Paul Broca who was a French surgeon and anthropologist

       ► It is used to cure psychological disorders by administrating insulin.


Which of the following can increase the likelihood of occurrence of a behavior?

       ► Extinction

       ► Reinforcement

       ► Punishment

       ► Insight


Identify where we stop reinforcement and behavior extinguishes.

       ► Generalization

       ► Extinction

       ► Spontaneous recovery

       ► Shaping


Which of the following law is given by Thorndike that all responses followed by satisfaction are stamped into an individual and he learns those responses?

       ► Law of exercise

       ► Law of effect

       ► Law of insight

       ► Law of belongingness


Which perspective of psychology emerged out of a desire to understand the conscious mind, free will, human dignity, and the capacity for self-reflection and growth?

       ► Humanistic

       ► Behavioral

       ► Gestalt

       ► Psychodynamic


Which of the following process is suggested by Bandura that help human behavior to learn?

       ► Intention

       ► Observation

       ► Insight

       ► Reinforcement


Fatima is using newspaper records to study the rate of crime during the past 20 years. Which type of method is she utilizing?

       ► Participant Observation

       ► Structured Observation

       ► Field experiments

       ► Archival data


Gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene is known as what?

       ► Dominant

       ► Mutated

       ► Recombinant

       ► Recessive


Which of the following is the correct order for Piaget's four stages of development?

       ► Preoperational, sensory-motor, concrete operations, formal operation

       ► Concrete operations, preoperational, sensory-motor, formal operation

       ► Sensory-motor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operation

       ► Preoperational, concrete operations, sensory-motor, formal operation


Which of the following is a scan showing biochemical activity within the brain at any given moment?

       ► CAT

       ► MRI

       ► EEG

       ► PET


Which of the following statement best describes “Hormones”?

       ► The male gonads 

       ► Chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles, which when released have an effect on the next cell 

       ► Chemicals released into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands 

       ► The female gonads


What do we call thyroid enlargement?

       ► Vitamin deficiency goiter

       ► Calcium deficiency goiter

       ► Protein deficiency goiter

       ► Iodine deficiency goiter


Which part of the eye is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil?

       ► Retina 

       ► Sclera

       ► Iris

       ► Lens


Which type of hearing problem can be reduced with ordinary hearing aids?

       ► Central deafness

       ► Auditory pathway deafness 

       ► Conduction deafness

       ► Sensory-neural deafness


In Watson’s experiment, when little Albet was being conditioned to the fear of a rat, afterwards he used to be afraid of cotton balls as well. This concept is known as what?

       ► Stimulus generalization

       ► Extinction

       ► Spontaneous recovery

       ► Higher order conditioning


When Pavlov presented the bell (CS) continuously without the presentation of the meat powder (US), the dog's salivation decreased. This process is known as what?

       ► Stimulus generalization

       ► Spontaneous recovery

       ► Extinction

       ► Reinforcement


A child overcomes her fear of snakes by observing another child repeatedly handle snakes. This is an example of which of the followings?

       ► Cognition therapy

       ► Systematic desensitization

       ► Modeling

       ► Contingency contracting


Cognitive approach emphasizes on all of the followings EXCEPT:

       ► Feelings

       ► Thoughts

       ► Thinking

       ► Genetic makeup


A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner; he will get a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is best example of which of the following?

       ► Operant conditioning

       ► Classical conditioning

       ► Biofeedback theory

       ► Social learning theory


After every third wicket taken by an individual of the Pakistan cricket team, the coach rewards the player. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?

       ► Fixed ratio schedule

       ► Variable ratio schedule

       ► Variable interval schedule

       ► Fixed interval schedule


An employee receives a reward every 45 minutes. In which type of reinforcement schedule organism is reinforced after pre fixed time of intervals?

       ► Fixed Ratio Schedule

       ► Variable Ratio Schedule

       ► Variable Interval Schedule

       ► Fixed Interval Schedule


The brain and the spinal cord comprise which of the following nervous systems?

a) Central nervous system

b) Peripheral nervous system

c) Autonomic nervous system

d) Sympathetic nervous system


The lobe of the cerebral cortex responsible for motor control and higher mental processes is known as the____________.

a) Occipital lobe

b) Temporal lobe

c) Parietal lobe

d) Frontal lobe


The band of muscles behind the cornea that gives the eye its color and controls the size of the pupil is known as the _________.

a) Sclera

b) Iris

c) Pupil

d) Cornea


The _______ theory suggests color vision depends on red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white processes in the brain. It suggests that the receptor cells are linked in pairs and they work in opposition to each other.

a) Figure-ground

b) Trichromatic

c) Photopigment

d) Opponent-process


Which of the following glands abnormal secretion result in a condition called “cretinism”?

a) Parathyroid gland

b) Thyroid gland

c) Pancreas

d) Gonads


What is conduction deafness?

a) Hearing loss due to failure of the auditory nerve

b) Hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the middle ear

c) Hearing loss due to failure of the visual nerve

d) Hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the outer ear


Who will be interested to study how cognitions are acquired and used in various groups and institutional settings?

a) Anthropologists

b) Computer scientist

c) Sociologists

d) Geeks


___________ refers to the degree of stability or change across the life span.

a) Temporal aspects

b) Situational aspects

c) Environmental aspects

d) Spatial aspects


Who developed REBT (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy)?

a) George Kelly

b) John Dollard

c) Albert Ellis

d) Neal Miller


In which of the following stage, OEDIPUS COMPLEX is observed?

a) Oral stage

b) Anal stage

c) Phallic stage

d) Genital stage


A child who gives many answers in response to a question resorts to the process of ______________.

a. Convergent thinking

b. Latent thinking

c. Divergent thinking

d. Critical thinking


A type of thinking which is aimed at solving problems or creating something new is called:

a. Creative thinking

b. Autistic thinking

c. Directed thinking

d. Symbolic thinking


Which one of the following best supports the heuristic approach of problem solving?

a. Trying different responses until one works

b. Following a rule that guarantees a solution to a specific type of problem

c. Applying solutions that were previously successful with other problems similar in underlying structure

d. Employing rules of thumb suggested by our experience that are often used to solve problems


Which one of the following is not a secondary/learnt motive?

a. Achievement

b. Power

c. Hunger

d. Curiosity


__________are enduring dimensions of personality characteristics that differentiate a person from others

a. Behaviour

b. Personality

c. Traits

d. All of the given options



In _________ defense mechanism, a person reverts back to a stage that was satisfying.

a. Sublimation

b. Repression

c. Denial

d. Regression


Hunger, thirst and sleep are the________________.

a. Learnt motives

b. Primary motives                 hunger, thirst, need for sleep, air, excretion

c. Social motives

d. None of the given options


A correlation is a numerical measure of the__________.

a) Unintended changes in participant’s behavior due to cues from the   experimenter.

b) Behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time.

c)   Behaviors of participants followed and periodically assed over time.

d) Strength of relationship between two variables.


An adjustment in the lens shape in order to keep images in sharp focus is called:

a) lens-image inversion

b) top-down processing

c)   Accommodation

d) Optical adaptation


A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitude toward gun control. Which research technique is being used?

a) Survey

b) Experiment

c) Naturalistic observation

d) Case study


As Saadia is walking across the campus, a car swerves toward her. Her heart beat races and sweat breaks out as she jumps out of harm’s way. This mobilization of energy is due to the action of Saadia’s __________ system:

a)   Sympathetic

b) Para sympathetic

c)   Somatic nervous

d) Skeleton nervous  


What two categories of dream content did Sigmund Frued described?

a)   Latent and manifest

b) Poetic and realistic

c)   Delusional and hallucinatory

d) Literal and symbolic


In survey research method:

a) Existing data are examined

b) A control group is necessary

c)   New data is generated

d) A sample of people are asked questions



A psychologist with a ______________ perspective focuses on how people know, understand, and think about the world:

a) Psychodynamic

b) Behavioral

c)   Humanistic

d) Cognitive


The change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation is called:

a)   The experimental manipulation

b) Randomization

c)   Replication

d) The control group


The proper sequence of structures that sound passes when it enters the ear is the following:

a) Oval window, eardrum, stirrup, cochlea

b) Cochlea, stirrup, eardrum, oval window

c)   Stirrup, eardrum, oval window, cochlea

d) Eardrum, stirrup, oval window, cochlea


The endocrine system is a______________ communication network that sends messages throughout the nervous system via the bloodstream:

a) Photo

b) Neural

c)   Electrical

d) Chemical


Which memory system provides us with a very brief representation of all the stimuli present at a particular moment?

Sensory memory

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

Primary memory


_________of the following perspectives would be associated with free will.






In the statement “Critical thinking requires reasoned judgments,” the word reasoned means___________

Giving it a lot of thought

Seeing one side of an argument very clearly

Focusing on opinion

Logical and well thought out


Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________________.


Authority and expertise

Keeping a closed mind

Reason and logical evaluation


The behavioral treatment approaches assume that abnormal behavior is ____________.


A function of dysfunctional cognitions

A consequence of restricted growth potential

The result of a biological dysfunction


What is one similarity shared by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists?

They diagnose and treat people experiencing behavioral and emotional problems.

They have the same training experiences after college

They view abnormal behaviors as arising from the same causes.

They obtain the same graduate degree


Galton considered intelligence to be _____________________.

a. Not heritable

b. Similar between most people

c. A property of our nervous system or hereditary

d. The product of social differences


If a man experiences chest pains while at a department store, and later experiences anxiety attacks when visiting department stores, this can be explained by what type of learning?

a. Operant

b. Classical conditioning

c. Observational

d. Vicarious


Social phobia is characterized by _____.

a. A fear of people

b. A fear of rejection

c. A fear of social situations

d. A fear of social isolation


Who was the founder of REBT?

a. Allbert Ellis

b. Aron beck

c. Albert Einstein

d. Aron Feldr


Which one is NOT a type of schizophrenia?

a. Disorganized type

b. Catatonic type

c. Paranoid type

d. Differentiated type


Name the concept when there is a feeling of integration between the self and ideal self.

a. Empathy

b. Respect

c. Congruence

d. Genuineness


____________Is a defense mechanism which refuses to acknowledge or accept anxiety provoking thoughts or impulses.

i)                 Displacement

ii)                Denial

iii)           Projection

iv)           None of the above


Structures of consciousness, according to psychodynamic approach, are conscious, subconscious, __________ and unconscious.

i)               Super conscious

ii)              Hyperconscious

iii)           Non conscious

iv)            None of the above

The therapy based upon __________ theory is too time consuming and therefore expensive.

i.  Psychodynamic

ii. Psycho social

iii. Trait

iv. None of the above


__________ described personality in terms of two major dimensions.

i.  Cattell

ii.  Eysenik

iii. Adler

iv. None of the above


TAT is a __________.

i)                 Self Report Inventory

ii)                Projection Test

iii)           Perception Test

iv)           None of the above


 __________ was the first to use the term “Mental Test” for devices used to measure intelligence.

i)  Galton

ii)  Cattell

iii)  Thorndike

iv)   None of the above


Binet and Simon were________ scientists. They were the first to measure intelligence formally.

 i)   German

ii)   American

iii)   French

iv)   None of the above


Cole and Hass gave the idea of __________.

i)  Social Intelligence

ii)   Moral Intelligence

iii)    Emotional Intelligence

iv)   None of the above


__________ has a dual function. Its functions are both arousing and alarming.

v)              S.N.S

vi)           P.N.S

vii)         A.N.S (Automatic Nervous System)

viii)     None of the above


J.B. Watson talked about three main emotions anger, love and __________.

v)              Disgust

vi)            Fear

vii)        Sadness

viii)     None of the above

According to Piaget, children’s thinking develops through two simultaneous processes. Identify them.

a. Assimilation and accommodation

b. Assimilation and mental representation

c. Mental representation and equilibrium

d. Equilibrium and accommodation


Which of the following statement best describe Erik Erikson?

a. He was an id psychologist

b. He developed a theory based on social rather than sexual relationships

c. He described archetypes

d. He gave the concept of basic anxiety


Which of the followings are the branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons?

a. Nerve bundles

b. Axons

c. Dendrites

d. Synapses


The peripheral nervous system consists of __________________.

a. The spinal cord and autonomic system

b. All nerves in the brain and the spinal cord

c. The brain and the autonomic system

d. All the nerve cells that are not in the brain and spinal cord


The fovea is made up of what?

a. All cones and no rods         Fovea: The very sensitive and important part of the retina that aids in focusing; it is the area of best vision

b. Mostly cones with some rods

c. All rods and no cones

d. Mostly rods with some cones


What are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?

a. Types of sound that most people can detect

b. Tiny bones located in the middle ear

c. Types of cones on the retina

d. Words often used by audiologists in testing for hearing difficulties

Which of the following is not one of the Gestalt principles?

a. Figure and ground

b. Proximity

c. Synchronicity

d. Closure


Which of the following statement best describes the concept of an illusion?

a. It is due to the action of the rods versus the cones in the retina

b. Corresponds directly to something that you dreamed

c. It is the same thing as a vision

d. It is a perception that does not correspond to reality


All of the following statements concern with the concept of learning EXCEPT:

a. Learning is relatively permanent

b. Learning involves experiences

c. Learning is another word for physical growth

d. Learning involves changes in behavior


Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called ________________.



Narcotics                          - Create a feeling of relaxation, and alleviate anxiety and pain

Depressants                      - Slowed down nervous system


According to Sigmund Freud, the important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the _____.

Manifest content

Deep content

Latent content

Subliminal content


Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of dreaming states that __________________.

The purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts

Dreaming is a by-product of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections

The purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems

There is no purpose to dreaming; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals


4. Daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, sleep, and hypnosis are all types of ______.

Altered states of consciousness

Waking consciousness




5. The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called _____.

Nerve bundles





The idea that learning occurs and is stored up, even when behaviors are not reinforced, is called ______.

Innate learning


Placebo learning

Latent learning


In operant conditioning, _____________ is necessary to create the association between the stimulus and the voluntary response.

The law of negative effect

A long time delay

Conditional emotional linkages



Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision are ______.

Cones                - Retinal receptors, cone- shaped and light sensitive, concentrated near the center of retina.

Concerned with sharp focusing, fine details and color sensation;


Rods                - Retinal receptors which are long, cylindrical, and light sensitive; that can only detect black, white and gray; they functions well  in dim light, and are largely insensitive to color and small details__ functions when cones do not respond

Bipolar cells

Ganglion cells


The branch of psychology that studies cognition, and related areas issues are called_____________.

1.   Forensic psychology

2.   Cognitive psychology

3.   Counseling psychology

4.   Clinical psychology


Dr. Usman studies the diagnosis, causes, treatments, and prevention of mental illnesses. Which type of psychologist is Dr. Usman?

· a) Clinical psychologist

b) Developmental psychologist

c) Forensic psychologist

d) Health psychologist


Which one of the following models believes that behavior is motivated by inner forces over which individuals have little control?

a) Cognitive model

· b) Psychodynamic model

c) Humanistic model

d) Behavioral model


Which one of the following schools of thought focused on what the mind does and how it does?

a) Structuralism

· b) Functionalism

c) Gestalt

d) Behaviorist


Which one of the following drugs is a stimulant?

· a) Nicotine

b) Lorazepam

c) Barbiturates

d) LSD


Tahir often experiences intense feelings of anger and frustration. In order to cope with these feeling, he enrolls in a kickboxing class as an outlet for his emotions. Tahir's actions are an example of which type of defense mechanism?

a) Projection

b) Displacement

c) Repression

d) Sublimation


Which type of learning process did Burrhus Frederic Skinner describe?

a) Classical Conditioning

b) Modeling

c) Observational Learning

d) Operant Conditioning


______________ refers to genetic composition of a person.

a) Genotype

b) Phenotype

c) Monotype

d) None of the given options


In a correlational study, when one variable goes up as another goes down is known as a _________.

a) Positive Correlation

b) No Correlation

c) Negative Correlation

d) Illusory Correlation


A researcher accessed information on the Internet from a series of surveys of women that was conducted during the 1970s and 1980s. The data were analyzed to examine changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Which of the following method was used?

a) Participant observation

b) Case study

· c) Archival data

d) Field experiments


A researcher wants to study the effects of violence displayed in movies on children behavior. In this research violence displayed in movies is the _________ variable as it is manipulated by the experimenter.

· a) Independent

b) Dependent

c) Confounding

d) All of the given options


 John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________.

a.   Consciousness

b.   The brain 

c.    The mind

d. Behavior


A(n) _________________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.

a.   Independent variable

· Correlation

b.   Experimental effect

c.    Dependent variable


A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a(n) _____________.

a.   Control condition

· Independent variable

b.   Coefficient of correlation

c.    Dependent variable


Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing laboratory controls is known as the ______. 

a · Naturalistic observation method

b.   Experimental method

c.   Psychometric approach

d.    Survey method


Who claimed that behavior is affected by positive reinforcement? 

· B. F. Skinner

b.   Sigmund Freud

c.   William James 

d.    Wilhelm Wundt 


A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called _____

 a.   A single-blind study

b.   A representative sample

c.    A naturalistic observation

d· A case study


The psychodynamic perspective was based on the work of ________________.


b.   Watson

c.    Gestalt

d.   Wundt


Who was an early proponent of functionalism?

a.   Wilhelm Wundt

b.   Ivan Pavlov

c.   William James 

d.   Max Wertheimer


Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?

 a.   Natural selection; functionalism

b.   Psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict

c.    Structuralism; observable behavior 

d.   Gestalt; whole


 “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” is a statement associated with the perspective of ____
a.   Introspection

b.   Gestalt psychologists

c.    Psychoanalysis

d.   Functionalism


A branch of psychology that studies the psychology in action at the workplace is known as which of the following?

Clinical psychology

Forensic psychology

Health psychology

Industrial / Organizational Psychology


Which of the followings model focuses on how people know, understand and think about the world?

Cognitive model

Behavioral model

Humanistic model

Psychodynamic model


Which of the following school of thought gave emphasis on the structure of consciousness?




Gestalt school of thought


Which of the following system is a chemical communication network that sends messages through out the nervous system via the bloodstream?






During which stage of development, the Oedipal and Electra complex takes place?

The Latency Period

The Anal Stage

The Oral Stage

The Phallic Stage


Which of the following will happen where we stop the reinforcement and the behavior will be extinguished?



Spontaneous recovery



Identify who among the following developed his system of psychotherapy called Client Centered Therapy

Alfred Adler

William. H. Sheldon

Albert Ellis

Carl Rogers


The recording of the behavior of people or animals in their natural environments, with little or no intervention by the researcher is known as what?

Experimental research

Naturalistic observation

Manipulative research

Laboratory observation


When a detailed description of a particular individual is gathered, this sort of data collection is known as

A single-blind study

A representative sample

A naturalistic observation

A case study


The branch of psychology that studies how physiological and social changes take place over the lifespan is known as what?

Forensic Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Clinical Psychology

Social Psychology


___________ focuses on the unconscious forces that drive or motivate human behavior.

  • Psychodynamic model
  • Functionalism
  • Structuralism
  • Gestalt psychology


The process of constructing comparable, exposure and comparison groups is called ____

  • Time series design
  • Prospective design
  • Retrospective design
  • Matching


______ gave the concept that human capacity for learning the language is innate.

  • Jean Piaget
  • Noam chomsky
  • Stanley schacter
  • Tolman


_______, a French surgeon and anthropologist, discovered speech centre in brain.

  • Paul Broca
  • Philippe Pinel                                  
  • Galen
  • Cabanis


Psychology is defined as the science of:

  • Sensation and perception.
  • Experience and mental illness.
  • Culture and group dynamics.
  • Behavior and mental processes.


 Who is considered the "father of psychology" by his establishment of the first psychology lab?

Wilhelm Wundt

William James

Sigmund Freud

E. B. Tichener

Which of the following is considered the founder of the psychodynamic perspective in psychology?

Wilhelm Wundt

William James

Sigmund Freud

E. B. Tichener


The behaviorists believed:

Psychology should emphasize the study of healthy people.

Psychology should only study observable and objectively described acts

Psychology should study the self examination of inner ideas and experiences.

All of the above.


The psychological school of thought that stressed the whole or complete view of a situation was:






According to this Psychological school of thought, to understand human behavior and thought, one must understand the unconscious mind and the key events that happened early in life that influence the unconscious mind. What is this school of thought?






Manifest content of a dream is:

The obvious and apparent part

Hidden content.

Conscious part of dream.

Overt part of dream.



Who established the first psychology lab in the United States?

 G. Stanley Hall

William James

Francis Cecil Sumner

Mary Whiton Calkins


Edward Titchener used a method for studying the mind that became very popular during the Structuralist period. The method, called _____ required trained participants to report their conscious mental experiences to the investigator. For example, if a person was angry, they would report all of their experiences during the time they were angry.






________ is the school of thought in where psychology is defined as the study of the structure of the mind.



· Structuralism.

All of the above.


Which of the following is the ability to use logic, past experience, and learn information for mental processing?






Who suggested that most human behavior is learned by Observation?

Albert Bandura

Gordon Allport

George Alexander Kelly

William H. Sheldon


Which of the following is NOT a type of learning?

Verbal learning

Problem solving

Motor learning



In which of the following type of learning; person’s own association, experiences and relations with the phenomenon has been involved?

Verbal learning

Problem solving

Motor learning

Audio learning


Cognitive approach emphasizes on all of the followings EXCEPT:




Genetic makeup



Which of the following is a rule; if it is applied, ensures the solution to the problem?



Both heuristics and algorithms



Which component has been called the outward expression of our emotions?

Behavioral      - Behavioral Component



None of the given options


Which one of the following processes is not the part of cognition?



Problem solving



Critical thinking means making judgments about world based on which of the following?


Authority and expertise

Keeping a close mind

Reason and logical evaluation


Which one of the following is not the primary motive?

Hunger                         hunger, thirst, need for sleep, air, excretion (Primary Motives)


Warmth and cold



In the theory of classical conditioning the acronym CR stands for which of the following?

Conditional reinforcement

Conditioned response

Contingent reflex

Contingent reflection


Which of the following is not one of the types of concepts?

Artificial concepts         Concepts that have a unique set of traits and features

Natural concepts          Known, familiar and relatively simple concepts that have rather loose features to define and explain them

Prolonged concepts

Prototype concepts       Prototypes are used to define and explain objects and ideas that cannot be defined in a clear-cut and straightforward manner


If reinforcement is withheld the response rate of the child declines and finally no response is shown by the child, this will be an example of which of the following?






Who among the following gave the Cognitive Appraisal Theory of emotions?

Richard Solomon and John Corbit

Richard Lazarus

Albert Ellis



All of the following statements concern with the concept of learning EXCEPT:

Learning is relatively permanent

Learning involves experiences

Learning is another word for physical growth

Learning involves changes in behavior


Which of the following is a desire, instinct or need that speeds up our behavior towards some goal?






Human behavior is determined by the environment. This was proposed by which of the followings?






Which of the following is a rule; if it is applied, ensures the solution to the problem?



Both heuristics and algorithms



A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on _____________.

Classical conditioning

Cognitive learning

Operant conditioning

Vicarious learning


Who amongst the following used apes in his experiments for knowing the use of insight by animals in problem solving?

J. B. Watson

B. F. Skinners

Wolfgang Kohler

Jean Piaget


Skinners used which of the following technique that means start reinforcing a behavior that is the first toward final behavior and then gradually reinforce successively closer approximations to the final behavior.






Learning to play a Piano is an example of which of the following?


Classical conditioning

Learning by insight



A child overcomes her fear of snakes by observing another child repeatedly handle snakes. This is an example of which of the followings?

Cognition therapy

Systematic desensitization


Contingency contracting


In which of the following type of learning, an association is formed between a behavior and a consequence? 

Classical conditioning

Operant conditioning


Observational learning


Which of the following psychologist would argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities? 





The rate at which food converts into energy and then is expended by the body is known as what? 






Secondary motives are also known as which of the following? 

Psycho-social motives

 Biological motives

 Psychological motives

 Emotional motives


Who among the following talked about the “cognitive maps”? 






Which of the following is the main contribution of Kohler in the Gestalt School? 

Learning by Insight

 Learning by Imitation

 Learning by Trial and Error

 Learning by Conditioning


Organized bodies of information stored in memory are called what? 






A German psychologist Wolfgang Kohler was one of the first psychologists who observed which of the following phenomenon? 


 Deductive reasoning

 Inductive Thinking

 Trial and error


All of the followings are the features of Unconscious EXCEPT: 

Instinctual drives



 Infantile wishes


Which part of brain controls positive emotions? 

The left hemisphere               - Positive emotion

 Limbic system

 The right hemisphere                - Negative emotion



With regard to the types of concepts; which of the following concept is known, familiar and relatively simple concept? 






The mind level below the level of conscious awareness is known as_____________. 

Pre conscious   - Part of the sub conscious that can be accessed by deliberate choice

 Sub conscious

 Unconscious - Part of the sub conscious that cannot be accessed directly, although impulses, ideas, and feelings may permeate out

                                through other sources e.g. dreams, slips of tongue etc.

 Conscious       - Contains thoughts and feelings which one is immediately aware of


Which one of the following is not a secondary/learnt motive? 



 Hunger                       Primary Motive



Which branch of psychology studies cognition, related areas and issues? 

Thinking psychology

 Experimental psychology

 Developmental psychology

 Cognitive psychology


According to Jung, which of the following is the energy for personal growth and development


 Superiority complex


 Neurotic needs


A rectangle has two opposite sides equal, if it is not the case, then it is not a rectangle. This is an example of which of the following type of concept? 






All of the followings are the features of Unconscious EXCEPT: 

Instinctual drives



 Infantile wishes


Hunger, thirst and sleep are what? 

Learnt motives

 Primary motives 

 Social motives

 None of the given options


The ABC model suggests that an attitude has three components. Which of the following is not one of them? 






According to “Theory of Emotions” given by Albert Ellis, emotions do not result from a single cause but originate from different ways. In this regard, all of the followings were identifies by Albert Ellis EXCEPT: 

Sensory- motor

 Bio-chemical stimulation

 Reflex action

 Cognitive and thinking processes


All of the followings are the methods of assessing personality EXCEPT: 


 Observation and behavioral assessment

 Psychological tests

 Positron Emission Tomography (PET)           a scan showing biochemical activity within the brain at any given moment


In which of the following need a person has a tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others? 






Learning approaches are primarily based upon the principles of all of the followings EXCEPT: 

Classical Conditioning

 Operant Conditioning

 Gestalt Principle

Cognitive Learning


Which part of brain helps in expression through tone of voice and by controlling facial expression? 

The left hemisphere

 Limbic system

 The right hemisphere



Which of the following approach’s main assumption is that “Human beings are capable of shaping their own destiny”?






Who gave the theory of “humors”?






Concepts that have unique sets of traits and features, easy to define and elaborate are known as what?

Artificial concepts

Natural concepts

Prolonged concepts

Prototype concepts


Relaxation exercises and meditation are the examples of what?

Mental images




Thanks alot 

Thx bro


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