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SEMESTER Spring 2014
Introduction to Psychology (PSY101)
Assignment No. 01
Due Date: 16th May, 2014
Upon completion of this assignment, students will be able to;
Clearly differentiate among different stages of Kohlberg’s theory
Practically imply a theoretical approach in real life scenarios
Given below are some case scenarios focusing on different stages of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Your task is to critically analyze the scenarios and then identify which stage of moral development is prevalent in each scenario. You are also required to present proper justification of your answer.
Akbar went to a shopping mall with his friends. While shopping, his friends started stealing chocolates from the shelves. They asked Akbar to do the same but he refused and said “I cannot steal because this is a crime and the hand of thieves are sentenced to be cut off in Islam”
Amir does not like to go to school. Instead he is very interested in playing cricket with his friends. Every day he thinks that he will skip school and go to the ground for playing. However he is afraid that if he will get caught then he will have to face punishment. Therefore he does not act
upon his thoughts and go to school daily.
Amna had to prepare for English and Science tests on the
same day. However she did not prepare her English test. She
knows that Saba, who sits next to her in the class, is a good
student of English. She decided to cheat from Saba’s paper to
attain good marks. Besides, she also thought that it was not
fair with her to prepare two tough tests on the same day.
Sara wants to use cigarettes as it thrills her to see boys using
cigarettes and wants to feel that actual feeling. However she
does not do so because she is afraid that her friends and
family will think low of her and will boycott her completely.
Ali is a strong supporter of the Kashmiris and believes that it is
against the basic human rights to impose such brutality over
For each case 1 mark for the identification of stage of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development and 3
marks for the justification of that selection.
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Lets Start the Discussion....
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Moral reasoning, which Kohlberg thought is the basis for ethical behavior, has developmental stages. There
are six identifiable stages of moral development. These stages can be classified into three levels.
Stages of Moral Development
i. Obedience and Punishment Orientation
ii. Self- interest orientation
i. Interpersonal accords
ii. Conformity (good boy/Good girl attitude)
iv. Social order orientation (law and order morality)
i. Social contract orientation
ii. Universal ethical principles (principled conscience)
Levels of Moral Development
o Common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning.
o Judging the morality of an action by its direct consequences.
o Pre-conventional level is divided into two stages:
• Stage One: Obedience and punishment orientation
• Stage two: self-interest orientation
o In stage one, individuals focus on the direct consequences that their actions will result into. They
see and analyze as to what actions are morally wrong and, if the person commits them, gets
punishment for it.
o In stage two, right behavior is what is defined as, ‘what is in one's own best interest’. Limited or
little interest is shown about other’s needs.
o Concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect.
o Can easily be seen in adults and older children.
o Persons, who reason in a conventional way, judge the morality of actions by comparing these
actions to social rules norms, standards, and expectations.
o The conventional level is divided into two further stages:
• Stage three: conformity orientation
• Stage four: law-and-order morality
o Individual, whose moral reasoning is in stage three, seeks approval from others. Tries to be a ‘good
boy’ or ‘good girl’, having learned that there is inherent value in doing so.
o Judging the morality of an action by evaluating its consequences.
o In stage four, individual thinks that it is important to obey the laws and social conventions because
it is important in maintaining society and thus does not require approval which is important in stage
o The post-conventional level is divided into two stages;
• Stage five: social contract orientation
• Stage six: principled conscience
o In stage five, people have certain principles or beliefs to which they may attach more value than
laws e.g. human rights or social justice.
o In the sixth and final stage, moral reasoning is based on the use of ‘abstract reasoning’ using
‘universal ethical principles’.
o Although Kohlberg insisted that sixth stage exists but he had difficulty finding people who used it.
It appears that people rarely use it, if, ever they reach this sixth stage of Kohlberg's model
discuss further.......if any one have any idea................
all stages are clear.... js need to justify them lil bit...
Hmmm, Subhan Allah
what hapnd blue eyes
NOthing Special Sister...
adnangul thanks for sharing keep it up
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its helpfull thax