MAIN PERSPECTIVES

Psychometrics:

1- observation:

Observational Procedures:

3. Behavioral Coding Systems:

4. Personality Inventories/ personality tests (objective tests):

MMPI

6. Projective Personality Tests:

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):

Rotter’s Incomplete Sentence Blank Test

House Tree and Person (HTP)

• Advantages of Projective Tests

• Limitations of Projective Tests

Perspectives of psychology

1- The psychodynamics approach

2- The dispositional Approach:

3- The Behavioral Approach:

4- The Humanistic Approach

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Replies to This Discussion

Psychometrics:
Psychometrics, or psychological measurement, has significantly helped to make Psychology a science.
Before the advent of psychometrics, it was not possible, to measure aspects of human psychological
functioning, e.g., intelligence, aptitudes, interests, motives, personality traits. Now, within certain
limitations, such measurements can be obtained. When psychological testing was introduced, the field of
personality acquired the potential for quantification and measurement of its concepts. In brief,
psychometrics made possible meaningful research in personality.
• Why does a friendly person get nasty and mean?
• What makes a person confident and optimistic even under stressful situation?
To address these questions Psychologists employ assessment methods.
Personality measurement and assessment procedures are useful in understanding the person.
Personality assessment is done by following tools:
• Observation
• Interview
• Tests
• Objective Tests (e.g. MMPI-2)
• Projective Tests
Projective tests include:

• Rorschach inkblot test
• Thematic Apperception test-TAT
• Rotter’s incomplete sentence blank-RISB
• word association test- WAT
• House Tree Person-HTP

Perspectives of psychology
1- The psychodynamics approach was founded by Freud, who assumes that a human personality is
formed out of conflicts between basic needs and demands of the society. Most of these conflicts are at the
unconscious level and they affect our everyday behavior
Freud believed that personality has three components-id, ego and super ego. He also emphasized on the
role of ego defense mechanisms which keep these conflicts at the unconscious level. He further talked
about psycho sexual stages of development-such as oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stage

2- The dispositional Approach:
This Approach assumes that personality is made up of a set of stable internal characteristics that guide
behavior. These characteristics are described as personality types but more often each person’s unique
combination of traits, factors or needs. These inherited tendencies or traits are the raw material which is
molded into a unique personality by the environment.

3- The Behavioral Approach:
This Approach assumes that personality is a unique pattern of learned behavior that people display in
various situations. This perception is advocated by Watson and Skinner. There are certain behaviorists who
include the role of learned patterns of thinking as well-such ad cognitive-behavioral approach whish
emphasizes on behavior as the outcome of person-situation interactions.

4- The Humanistic Approach
It is based on the assumption that personality is determined by the unique ways in which each individual
views the world. These perceptions of the person form a personal vision of reality and guides behavior of
the person to reach its fullest human potential. This Approach is represented in the theories of Carl Rogers
and Maslow.

Feel free to ask in case of any ambiguity.

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