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PSY504 Cognitive Psychology Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion

Assignment

Dear students;
The human brain is a miraculous organ encompassing a plethora of higher order mental processes, out of which attention is a prominent one. Attention is surprisingly limited in its characteristics at certain instances. The extensive focus on the phenomenon of attention have led researchers to carry out a lot of experimentations and explorations in order to determine the nature and characteristics of attention. You task is to answer the following questions of this particular context to the best of your understanding of the phenomenon of attention and attention models/experimentations

Q1: Enlist and explain any five example metaphors that can help you think about the limitedresource characteristic of attention. (1+1+1+1+1)

Q2: Define the early selection approach and the experiment done by two undergraduates on attention and meaning. How are the two approaches different from each other? (3+2)

Q3: Explain any two early selection attention models/experiments. (2.5+2.5)

Q4: Evaluation of demands on capacity generates a feedback loop and brings about changes in the attention allocation policy. Give any five examples from your daily life (with reference to Kahneman’s capacity model) in which you had to change your attention allocation policy due to different demands of the task. (1+1+1+1+1)


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PSY504 Solution Assignment#01 Fall 2020

Click on the below link to download the file

PSY504_Assignment_No_01_Solution_Fall_2020

Assignment

Dear students;
The human brain is a miraculous organ encompassing a plethora of higher order mental processes, out of which attention is a prominent one. Attention is surprisingly limited in its characteristics at certain instances. The extensive focus on the phenomenon of attention have led researchers to carry out a lot of experimentations and explorations in order to determine the nature and characteristics of attention. You task is to answer the following questions of this particular context to the best of your understanding of the phenomenon of attention and attention models/experimentations

Q1: Enlist and explain any five example metaphors that can help you think about the limitedresource characteristic of attention. (1+1+1+1+1)

Q2: Define the early selection approach and the experiment done by two undergraduates on attention and meaning. How are the two approaches different from each other? (3+2)

Q3: Explain any two early selection attention models/experiments. (2.5+2.5)

Q4: Evaluation of demands on capacity generates a feedback loop and brings about changes in the attention allocation policy. Give any five examples from your daily life (with reference to Kahneman’s capacity model) in which you had to change your attention allocation policy due to different demands of the task. (1+1+1+1+1)

Enlist and explain any five example metaphors that can help you think about the limited resource characteristic of attention. (1+1+1+1+1

Q2: Define the early selection approach and the experiment done by two undergraduates on attention and meaning. How are the two approaches different from each other? (3+2)

Early selection advocates argue that the locus of selection is at early stages of processing and that therefore, unattended stimuli are not fully processed. In contrastlate selection theorists argue that attention operates only after stimuli have been fully processed.

Explain any two early selection attention models/experiments. (2.5+2.5)

Experiment 1: Implicit Memory

After the interview and screening tests, each participant was trained on the task for ∼15 min in a quiet room before the implicit memory test started. Participants completed 30 practice trials. None of the practice trials were presented at test. The implicit classification task lasted about 35 min and consisted of a study phase and a test phase as described above.

Experimental Design

The experimental design consisted of a 2 (group: young adults and older adults) × 3 (study condition: attended, unattended, and non-studied pictures) mixed factorial design. Group was the between-subjects factor and study condition was the within-subjects factor.

Encoding Phase

As described above, participants performed the conceptual classification task on each of the 36 trials and were asked to respond as fast and accurately as possible.

Test Phase

After the study phase, and when the 3 min (distraction task) had elapsed, participants performed the speeded natural/artificial classification task by pressing one of two keys. In this phase, participants were presented with the 72 studied pictures that had been displayed during the encoding phase (36 attended and 36 unattended), intermixed with 48 new pictures. The order of presentation of the 120 stimuli (36 attended, 36 unattended and 48 non-studied) was randomized for each participant.

The trial sequence started with a central white fixation cross appearing for 20 s, followed by the picture outline presented in the center of the screen. Participants categorized the picture as fast as possible. Latency was measured from the time the picture outline appeared on the screen until the participant’s response (see Figure 2). Performance was assessed by the response time at which the stimuli were correctly classified.

When the experiment ended, participants were asked if they were aware of the repetition of the stimuli. The results confirmed that none were aware that stimuli from the first phase of the experiment had been presented again.

Results and Discussion

To investigate whether the young and older adults were similarly accurate in the classification task at encoding, we calculated the mean number of errors of the older adults and the young adults. Four young adults were excluded from the analyses due to technical problems. Three older participants were also excluded due to their low accuracy (below 75% correct). So, 20 young adults and 17 cognitively normal older adults entered into the analyses. The mean number of errors of young adults and older adults were 1 and 2, respectively. The univariate ANOVA performed on accuracy using the number of errors as the dependent variable showed that the main effect of group was marginally significant [F(1,35) = 3.92, p = 0.05, MSE = 2.34, partial η2 = 0.10, 1-β error prob = 0,38].

To assess conceptual repetition priming, separate ANOVAs were performed using the percentage of errors and RTs as dependent measures. Trials with reaction times (RTs) faster than 200 ms or slower than 2000 ms (3.5 and 4.6% for younger and older adults, respectively) were excluded from the analyses. shows the average response time taken to classify the attended, unattended, and non-studied stimuli as a function of group and study condition.

Experiment 2: Explicit Memory

A new set of 120 picture outlines was used in this explicit memory task. After completing the study phase in which they were asked to attend to the stimuli of a prespecified color and to remember them for a subsequent memory test, participants performed the old–new picture recognition task inside the scanner to evaluate the influence of attention at encoding on explicit memory. At test, the 72 pictures presented at study plus 48 new pictures were displayed one by one. The procedure used was similar to that of the implicit classification task. Only the test instructions changed.

Encoding Phase

Participants were instructed to try to remember the stimuli presented in a given color (green or blue) while they performed the classification task. Half of the participants attended the blue picture outlines and the other half to the pictures with green outlines.

Test Phase

At test, attended, unattended, and new stimuli were presented in black in a different random order for each participant. They indicated whether the picture was “old” or “new” by pressing one of two response buttons.

Results and Discussion

In the encoding phase, two young participants were eliminated due to technical problems and two older adults due to their low accuracy (below 75% correct). Twenty-two young adults and 18 cognitively normal older adults entered into the analyses. The mean number of errors for older adults during the encoding phase was 2.1 and for younger adults 1.4 (out of a maximum of 36). The univariate ANOVA conducted on errors as the dependent variable for group (young and older adults) showed that the main effect of group was not statistically significant [F(1,38) = 2.38, p > 0.05, MSE = 2.10, partial η2 = 0.05, 1-β error prob = 0.32]. The analysis showed that the two age groups were similarly accurate at encoding.

 illustrates the recognition performance of young and older adults expressed in terms of the correct recognition memory of hits – false alarms using frequencies as a function of study condition. The results clearly show that there was recognition memory for those picture outlines that were attended at encoding but not for unattended stimuli.

Q4: Evaluation of demands on capacity generates a feedback loop and brings about changes in the attention allocation policy. Give any five examples from your daily life (with reference to Kahneman’s capacity model) in which you had to change your attention allocation policy due to different demands of the task. (1+1+1+1+1)

I remember when I have to perform two tasks at same time I have to make proper attention for both tasks so I have to maintain a certain level on which I can concentrate on both tasks for example mostly I wash dishes and make tea at same time so my main attain area is air my air start working on specific type of noise which milk make while boiling. So whenever I listen that noise I know milk is going to boil so I quickly stop the tap and turn and medium the flame. .

 

PSY504 Solution Assignment#01 Fall 2020

Click on the below link to download the file

PSY504_Assignment_No_01_Solution_Fall_2020

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