PSY505 Developmental Psychology Assignment No 01 Spring 2019 Solution & Discussion
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Q#1Q#1 Theory of scaffolding:Jerome burner was a psychologist and known for his contribution in field of psychology. Burner was impressed by the work of Lev vygotsky. Vygotsky argues that a child’s social environment and social interaction are important factors in learning process.He proposed scaffolding theory in 1976.It is considered very effective in education department. He says that it is necessary for the teacher t to provide his student good and helpful environment in his childhood to enhance his learning .He proposed that main objective of the education is learning so curriculum of school must be designed to increase problem solving techniques .This concept is based upon activity provided by high competent peer.A child is not able to understand this world by himself. There is always a coach or teacher who assists him in learning process .The support and scaffold is removed when student is ready to learn. For e.g. if student is learning a math concept he or she might understand it by teacher but this scaffold is temporary. Every step is explained by the teacher deeply but after it student has to do it without any help or guidance of teacher. This theory increases higher order skills of student.This theory requires the adult’s to control those factors that are not beyond the ability of learner and ask him to focus on only those point that are within range of his capability.Theory of discovery learning: Jerome S burner presented this theory in 1961.He introduced discovery learning theory as formal learning theory. According to this theory problem is solved by learner by using his own previous knowledge and past experiences. Students interact with the world to discover solution for the problems and to perform experiments. He said there are two different types of targets in theory of discovery learning:Discovery learning theory should act as an extension.It should provide structure to students to increase his knowledge.There are four basic components of this theory:Motivation.Uncertainty.Sequence.Structural knowledge.
According to this theory there are three stages of representation:Enactive: representation of knowledge through actions.Iconic: the visual summarization of images.Symbolic representation: use of words and other symbols to describe experiences.
Distinguishing features of both theories: Scaffolding theory Discovery learning theory Suitable for low grade student Suitable for adults or high grade students Enhances higher order skills enhances critical thinking Observed and guided by mentor Independent in learning Assessed by mentor in term of learning Assessed by discovering new ways to solve problems
Q#02Language is a tool that makes a human distinct from other species of the world. A human is not surrounded by the lives around him there are lives from whole world therefore our native language is not enough to survive in world with different people. A linguist says “the limit of my language means the limit of my world”.According to the Chomsky “language is a process of free creation its laws and principles are fixed but the manner in which the principle of generation are used is free and defiantly varied”. Now the question arises how to learn second language? Through imitation? Reading? Speaking? Or it’s a natural gift.Renowned linguistics presented different theories in field of second language acquisition Celca-Murcia& Mclntosh L.( 1979) presented the fact that between 1920 and 1960 were years of rough period of greatest hegemony.Piaget believes that language can be used to present the knowledge that a child have acquired through interaction with surroundings.in 1977 Eckman presented a method to determine o directionality.Lenneberg presented the Critical period hypothests.James in 1998 investigated performance errors that a person can correct easily for e.g. mistakes or slips and errors that a learner cannot correct. These are some people who spent their lives in studies how to learn a language especially second language.What is universal grammar?It is theory of genetic component of the language faculty credited to Chomsky. It is mostly defined as system and mechanism shared by all living languages and is perceived innate. This theory claims that human beings have innate disposition to learn language. Language acquisition device (LAD) consists for innate linguistic properties.it is the ability to distinguish speech sound from other sounds in the enviornmnt.it is an ability to arrange linguistic data into different classes. Universal grammar theory notices what constitutes the knowledge of language how it is obtained and how it is used .It is concerned with mostly first language however it can be used in second language learning too. Chomsky observed that linguistic competence is a skill of system of the language acquired by language learner which helps them to specify grammatical right speaking and which is not. This theory is concerned with grammatical competence; however universal grammar concept should not be confused with universal language or with the grammar itself. As Chomsky observed and noticed that universal grammar is not a grammar but theory of grammar.Principal and parameters of universal grammar:Principal and parameters are important component of UG theory. This concept explains that principal is same for all languages. They have same underlying structure principles depend upon structure such as words and morphemes instead of its sequence. And parameters vary from one language to another for e.g. in English and Chinese sequence is SVO but in Japanese it is SOV.Argument in support of UG:Universal grammar theory of Chomsky assigns a precise role to the environment. Over the years a number of arguments have been made in support of this theory. These include the following:1) This approach is concern with syntax, semantics and pragmatics.2) Language universals: all living languages in the world share same properties for e.g. all languages have nouns and verbs and if they are spoken all languages have vowels and consonant.3) This theory contributed a lot in linguistic field .It look exclusively with the developmental linguistic route.4) Methodological: Theory focuses on modeling of competence. So theory encourages students for performance instead of rote learning.
PSY505 Assignment No 01 Solution Spring 2019
PSY505 Assignment Solution Spring 2019