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PSY610 Assignment No 01 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 10-11-2017

Due Date: November 09, 2017 Marks: 20

Assignment Objectives:
Upon the successful completion of this assignment, students will be able to develop a better
understanding of sub-specializations of neurosciences and the concept of natural selection.

Question No. 01: (15)
Given below are the three sub-specializations of neurosciences:
• Neuropharmacology
• Neuroendocrinology
• Biopsychology

Your task is to explain and investigate the areas which are studied in the above mentioned
sub-specializations of neurosciences.
Question No. 02: (05)
What is your understanding about “Natural Selection”? Explain it with the help of an
example.

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Q1_

Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), including the study of how drug dependence and addiction affect the human brain.[1] Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemicalinteractions, with the overall goal of developing drugs that have beneficial effects on neurological function. Both of these fields are closely connected, since both are concerned with the interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Studying these interactions, researchers are developing drugs to treat many different 

  • Neuroendocrinology = is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, including the biological features of the cells involved (cytology), and how they communicate (see: Cell biology). The nervous and endocrine systems often act together in a process called neuroendocrine integration, to regulate the physiologicalprocesses of the human body. Neuroendocrinology arose from the recognition that the brain, especially the hypothalamus, controls secretion of pituitary gland hormones, and has subsequently expanded to investigate numerous interconnections of the endocrine and nervous systems.

  • The neuroendocrine system is the mechanism by which the hypothalamus maintains homeostasis, regulating reproduction, metabolism, eating and drinking behaviour, energy utilization, osmolarity and blood pressure.

  • Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that analyzes how the brain, neurotransmitters, and other aspects of our biology influence our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. This field of psychology is often referred to by a variety of names including biopsychology, physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and psychobiology. Biopsychologists often look at how biological processes interact with emotions, cognitions, and other mental processes. The field of biopsychology is related to several other areas, including comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology.

Q2_

Natural selection affects all living organisms, in keeping a species strong and fit for existence under the conditions in which it is living. NATURE SELECTS! Natural selection pressure s can work only in the presence of genetic variability Adaptations made in one generation, if beneficial would be carried on to the next generation there is constant process of adaptation. If species do not adapt they do not survive (dogs which do not learn to watch for cars on the road, die–which means the end of their genes). Primates developed extensions to help in survival/hunting (young chimps use hollow sticks for ants), as they could not compete with the stronger hunters and predators

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