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PSY610 Neurological Bases of Behavior Assignment No 01 Spring 2019 Solution & Discussion

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psy610 assg no 1 idea
created by Amna sher ali shaker
this is just idea
i might be wrong, if you see any mistake, plz correct me


Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems.
The signs and symptoms of PKU vary from mild to severe. The most severe form of this disorder is known as classic PKU. Infants with classic PKU appear normal until they are a few months old. Without treatment, these children develop permanent intellectual disability. Seizures, delayed development, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders are also common. Untreated individuals may have a musty or mouse-like odor as a side effect of excess phenylalanine in the body. Children with classic PKU tend to have lighter skin and hair than unaffected family members and are also likely to have skin disorders such as eczema.
CASE # 2
Tay-Sachs disease
ay-Sachs disease (the most severe form of Hexosaminidase A deficiency) is a progressive, fatal genetic condition that affects the nerve cells in the brain. People with Tay-Sachs lack a specific protein (enzyme) called hexosaminidase A. This enzyme deficiency causes a fatty substance, GM2 ganglioside, to build up in the brain. It is this accumulation that causes the symptoms of Tay-Sachs. 

Symptoms of Tay-Sachs usually develop around 3-6 months of age when the child starts to have muscle weakness, low muscle tone, an increased startle response and sudden contractions of large muscles when falling asleep (myoclonic jerks).
Between 6 and 10 months of age, a child will not meet motor milestones and may lose the ability to perform tasks (such as sitting) that he/she had previously learned. Decreased eye movement and contact as well as attentiveness are also seen along with a specific change in the eye called a cherry-red spot which can be seen during an eye exam.
After 8 to 10 months of age, a baby will move less and become less responsive. Vision will be lost and many will have seizures by a year of age. A person's head size will start to grow around 18 months of age and when a child is 2 years old, they typically have trouble swallowing and progress into an unresponsive vegetative state. Age of death is usually between 2 and 4 years, often from pneumonia.
In addition to classic Tay-Sachs, there are other forms of Hexosaminidase A deficiency that are sometimes referred to as forms of Tay-Sachs:
Juvenile Hexosaminidase A deficiency begins with trouble walking (ataxia) and incoordination in early childhood. Symptoms are similar to those of classic Tay-Sachs although the cherry-red spot is not as common. Age of death is usually in teenage years, usually from infections, although some will die much sooner.
Chronic Hexosaminidase A deficiency usually develops before age 10 but people do not lose as many motor skills as those with Tay-Sachs. Cognitive and verbal skills are affected later in the course.
Adult-onset Hexosaminidase A deficiency causes slow but progressive muscle weakness and wasting as well as trouble speaking clearly, cognitive problems, and dementia. Up to 40% of people have psychiatric problems (which can be present without dementia). Severity, even within a family, is very variable. Life expectancy can vary widely and may not be shortened.
CASE # 3

Developmental co-ordination disorder (dyspraxia)

Movement and co-ordination problems
Problems with movement and co-ordination are the main symptoms of DCD.
Children may have difficulties:
with playground activities such as hopping, jumping, running, and catching or kicking a ball – they often avoid joining in because of their lack of co-ordination and may find physical education difficult 
walking up and down stairs 
writing, drawing and using scissors – their handwriting and drawings may appear scribbled and more childish than other children their age 
getting dressed, doing up buttons and tying shoelaces 
keeping still – they may swing or move their arms and legs a lot 
A child with DCD may appear awkward and clumsy as they may bump into objects, drop things and fall over a lot. 
But this in itself isn't necessarily a sign of DCD, as many children who appear clumsy actually have all the normal movement (motor) skills for their age.
Some children with DCD may also become less fit than other children as their poor performance in sport may result in them being reluctant to exercise.
Additional problems
As well as difficulties related to movement and co-ordination, children with DCD can also have a range of other problems, such as:
difficulty concentrating – they may have a poor attention span and find it difficult to focus on one thing for more than a few minutes 
difficulty following instructions and copying down information – they may do better at school in a one-to-one situation than in a group, as they're able to be guided through work 
being poor at organising themselves and getting things done
not automatically picking up new skills – they need encouragement and repetition to help them learn 
difficulties making friends – they may avoid taking part in team games and may be bullied for being "different" or clumsy 
behaviour problems – often stemming from a child's frustration with their symptoms 
low self-esteem
But although children with DCD may have poor co-ordination and some of these additional problems, other aspects of development – for example, thinking and talking – are usually unaffected.

Related conditions
Children with DCD may also have other conditions, such as:
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness 
dyslexia – a common learning difficulty that mainly affects the way people read and spell words 
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) – a condition that affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour 
Some children with DCD have difficulty co-ordinating the movements required to produce clear speech.
in 3rd case i am not sure that is correct judgement.


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