Karbala (Arabic: كربلاء; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbalā' al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km (60 mi) southwest of Baghdad at 32.61°N, 44.08°E. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, with an estimated population of 572,300 people (2003).
The city is best known as the location of the Battle of Karbala, and is amongst the holiest cities for Shī‘ah Muslims after Makkah, Madinah, and Najaf. During the life of Husayn ibn ‘Alī, the city was also known as al-Ghādiriyyah, Naynawā, and Shāt al-Furāt. The city contains the Imam Husayn Shrine which is considered sacred by Shias.
There are several theories as to the origin of the name Karbala. One traditional hypothesis is geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi's belief that the name is an alternate Arabic feminine version of karbalah "soft earth".. Another theory is that the name came from the Aramaic root Karb or Qarb; meaning "Near", and Alah; meaning God. Hence, the word 'Karbala' signifies 'Near God'. Also,some historians stated that it was derived from the word "Kora", place for making bricks ,for the famous ancient city of "Babil" ,Hence (( Korebabil)) .
The city is one of Iraq's wealthiest, profiting both from religious visitors and agricultural produce, especially dates. It is made up of two districts, "Old Karbala," the religious centre, and "New Karbala," the residential district containing Islamic schools and government buildings.
At the centre of the old city is the Masjid al-Husayn, the tomb of Husayn ibn ‘Ali, grandson of Muhammad by his daughter Fatima tuz-Zahra and ‘Alī ibn Abu Tālib. Hussein's tomb is a place of pilgrimage for many Shī‘ī Muslims, especially on the anniversary of the battle, the Day of ‘Āshūrā. Many elderly pilgrims travel there to await death, as they believe the tomb to be one of the gates to paradise. Another focal point of the Shī‘ī pilgrimage to Karbala is al-Makhayam, traditionally believed to be the location of Husayn's camp, where the martyrdom of Husayn and his followers is publicly commemorated.
The city's association with Shī‘a Islām have made it a centre of religious place as well as worship; it has more than 100 mosques and 23 religious schools, of which possibly the most famous is that of Ibn Fahid, constructed some 440 years ago.
Karbala's prominence in Shīa traditions is the result of the Battle of Karbala, fought on the site of the modern city on October 10, 680 AD. Both Husayn and his brother ʻAbbās ibn ʻAlī were buried by the local Banī Asad tribe at what later became known as the Mashhad Al-Hussein.The main battle was actually because Yazid ibne Muawiya who wanted to rule the entire place and also wanted Imam Hussain(a.s) to accept and bow in front of him. But Imam Hussain was a disciple of Allah and he bowed his head only in front of Allah and not anybody else. One day Yazid sent a letter to Imam Hussain that said that if he did not accept his commands , his friend would be killed. His name was Muslim ibne Aqeel.
While Imam Hussain was on his way, Yazid and his followers stopped Imam Hussain's tribe at Karbala. They stopped the water supply from the river Furat or Eufrates for their tents 3 days. Yazid killed Imam Hussain and his friends and family without serving them water. Not only Imam hussain and Hazrat Abbass, but his 18 year old son Ali Akbar,and his 6 month old son Ali Asghar were killed... 72 of them were killed without even having a drop of water. The city grew up around the tombs, though the date of construction of the first sanctuary is not known.
The city and tombs were greatly expanded by successive Muslim rulers, but suffered repeated destruction from attacking armies. The original shrine was destroyed by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil in 850 but was rebuilt in its present form around 979, only to be partly destroyed by fire in 1086 and rebuilt yet again.
Like Najaf, the city suffered from severe water shortages that were only resolved in the early 18th century by building a dam at the head of the Hussayniyya Canal. In 1737, the city replaced Isfahan in Iran as the main centre of Shī'a scholarship. In the mid-eighteenth century it was dominated by the dean of scholarship, Yusuf Al Bahrani, a key proponent of the Akhbari tradition of Shī'a thought, until his death in 1772, after which the more state-centric Usuli school became more influential. It suffered severe damage in 1802 when an invading Wahhabi army sacked the city. Following the Wahhabi invasion, the city's sheikhs established a self-governing republic which was ended by a reimposition of Ottoman rule in 1843. This prompted many students and scholars to move to Najaf, which became the main Shī'a religious centre.
Karbala's development was strongly influenced by the Persians, who were the dominant community for many years (making up 75%of the city's population by the early 20th century). The Kammouna family (Arab) were custodians of the shrines for many years and effectively ran the city until it fell under the control of the British Empire in 1915. The Persian influence was deliberately reduced under British rule, with a series of nationality laws (such as a prohibition on foreigners occupying government posts) being introduced to squeeze out the Persian community. By 1957, they accounted for only 12% of the city's population. They were subsequently assimilated into the Iraqi population, accepting Iraqi nationality.
The association of the city with Shīʻa religious traditions led to it being treated with suspicion by Iraq's Sunni rulers. Under Saddam Hussein's rule, Shīʻa religious observances in the city were greatly restricted and many non-Iraqi Shīʻa were not permitted to travel there at all.
In 1991, the city was badly damaged and many killed when a rebellion by local Shīʻa was put down with great brutality by Saddam's regime. The 2004 pilgrimage was the largest for decades, with over a million people attending. It was marred by bomb attacks on March 2, 2004, now known as the Ashoura massacre, which killed and wounded hundreds despite tight security in the city.
A big Shia festival passed off peacefully amid fears of possible violence that brought thousands of troops and police into the city. Hundreds of thousands of Shia pilgrims who had come together to celebrate the Shaabaniya ritual began leaving the southern city after September 9, 2006 climax ended days of chanting, praying and feasting. Heavy presence by police and Iraqi troops seemed to have kept out Wahhabi/Takfiri Al-Qaeda suicide bombers who have disrupted previous rituals. Three million people attended. Worshippers heard SCIRI leader Abd al-Aziz al-Hakim repeat demands for legislation to let mainly Shia regions of the oil-rich south merge into an autonomous federal region that would neighbour Iran.
On January 19, 2008, 2 million Iraqi Shia pilgrims marched through Karbala city, Iraq to commemorate Ashura. 20,000 Iraqi troops and police guarded the event amid tensions due to clashes between Iraqi troops and Shia Muslims which left 263 people dead (in Basra and Nasiriya).
Only the Shia believe that Karbalā is one of the holiest places on Earth according to the following traditions (among others):
|“||“Karbalā, where your grandson and his family will be martyred, is the one of the most blessed and the most sacred land on Earth and it is one of the valleys of Paradise.”||”|
|“||“God chose the land of Karbalā as a safe and blessed sanctuary twenty-four thousand years before He created the land of the Ka‘bah and chose it as a sanctuary. Verily it (Karbalā) will shine among the gardens of Paradise like a shining star shines among the stars for the people of Earth.”||”|
It is narrated from Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that, 'The earth of the pure and holy grave of Imam Husain (a.s.) is a pure and blessed musk. For those who consume it from among our Shias, it is a cure for every ailment, and if our enemy uses it then he will melt the way fat melts, when you intend to consume that pure earth recite the following supplication:…
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