ZOO506 Applied Entomology and Pest Management Assignment No 02 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion Due Date: 25-01-2021
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ZOO506 Assignment 2 Fall 2020 Solution idea:
Due Date: 25-01-2021
“Biological Control of Agriculture Insect Pests” Paper is easily accessible on this link. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/236413921.pdf
The paper is available in downloads section of the course website at LMS as well.
Note: Students should read this article and prepare summary in MS word file and upload on your LMS well before deadline 25- 01-2021.
Biological Control of Agriculture Insect Pests”
Biological control is defined as the reduction of pest populations by natural enemies and typically involves an active human role. Biological control minimizes the use of chemical pesticides .
A biological control platform reduces, but does not eradicate pests and it is used to suppress populations of pest organisms below levels that would have negative economic impact .
Natural enemies used in biocontrol measures include parasitoids, predators, microbes and beneficial nematodes . Before a discussion of biocontrol, it is necessary to mention «natural control» resulting from biotic or abiotic environmental conditions. Successful biological control is nearly irreversible because the agent is permanently established.
Safety concerns related to biological control
There are two main areas of safety issues that must be considered when implementing a biological control program. The second concern is the strength and duration of the biocontrol agent on the environment. Accessing the safety of biocontrol continues to be a challenge because of varying environmental applications. Also, the regulations and registration for biocontrol agents varies from country to country.
These guidelines are meant to help prevent damage caused by the release of exotic biocontrol agents. There are very good reasons to adopt stringent safety and regulatory policies and to demand regulation of specific biocontrol agents. Biocontrol agents are broadly defined as pesticides and in general, pesticides and users must be approved before they are imported, marketed and applied. Table 2 shows the different species of organisms which are used as biological control agents.
Balancing the public caution are viewpoints of biocontrol producers. These agents should be regulated only if a potential problem is known. Biocontrol agents have been employed for decades with no documented dangers or harms. Compared with the damage done by accidently introduced invasive alien species, negative biocontrol impacts have been negligible.
It is a fact that the biocontrol producer industry has guidelines in place to facilitate self- regulation . The marketing of ineffective biocontrol agents is controlled by the market. The biocontrol industry points out that approved chemical insecticides may continue to be sold and used even after they show increasing signs of ineffectiveness due to resistance buildup of target pests. The International Organization for Biological Control has published its conclusions about cost of developing effective biological agents.
IOBC encourages biological control development and its application in integrated pest management programs through collection, evaluation and dissemination of information about biological control agents. IOBC sponsors national and international research as well as promoting public awareness of biological control’s economic and social importance.
A clear host range assessment must be undertaken to determine if the agent can be successful on the target species. A sound knowledge of the biological agent and the host must be available. Knowledge of effective dispersal mechanisms of biocontrol agents can provide important data. Dispersal protocols of the biological agent may be affected by geography and behavioral traits such as ranging and host foraging.
Chemical pesticides can cause a wide range of human health problems such as nerve, skin, and eye irritation. Chemical pesticides can spoil agricultural land by affecting beneficial insect species, soil microorganisms, and worms responsible for soil health. Biocontrol agents are usually very specific and present less danger to environment and water. Chemical residue-free products from farms and natural systems.
Potential to be permanent reductions of pest organisms. The use of biological agents in agriculture has a high benefit to cost ratio. The public is more accepting of biological control than chemical agents.
The risks associated with biocontrol to human/animal health are very low. Biological controls are sometime producing airborne hairs or scales which are potential allergens. There is no known example where introduced natural enemies of pests inflicted significant damage on crops or native plants.