In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
Dear questioner! Thank you for your question and the confidence you place in our service and we pray to Allah to enable us render this service purely for His Sake.
In the first place, we would like to note that a Muslim looks at any cosmic event as a sign of the power and existence of Allah. A Muslim resorts to Allah in all times,specially at these times of solar and lunar eclipse when he needs His help.
During the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), a solar eclipse happened. People hurried to link this to a worldly event, namely, the death of the Prophet’s son,Ibrahim. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) explained the truth of this matter to them. In hisSahih, Imam Muslim reported that `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: There was a solar eclipse in the time of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him). He stood up to pray and prolonged his standing very much. He then bowed and prolonged very much his bowing. He then raised his head and prolonged his standing much, but it was less than the (duration) of the first standing. He then bowed and prolonged bowing much, but it was less than the duration of his first bowing. He then prostrated and then stood up and prolonged the standing, but it was less than the first standing. He then bowed and prolonged his bowing, but it was less than the first bowing. He then lifted his head and then stood up and prolonged his standing, but it was less than the first standing. He then bowed and prolonged bowing and it was less than the first bowing. He then prostrated himself; then he turned about, and the sun had become bright, and he addressed the people. He praised Allah and lauded Him and said: “The sun and the moon are two signs of Allah; they are not eclipsed on account of anyone’s death or on account of anyone’s birth. So when you see them, glorify and supplicate Allah, observe the Prayer, give alms. OUmmah of Muhammad, none is more indignant than Allah when His servant or maid commits fornication. O people of Muhammad, by Allah, if you knew what I know, you would weep much and laugh little. O Allah, witness, I informed them.”
In his well known book, The Prescribed Prayer Made Simple, the prominent Muslim scholar SheikhTajjuddin B. Shu`aib, Director of King FahdMosque in Culver City, California, USA, wrote:
Kusoof, or solar eclipse, is the partial or total cutting off of the sun’s light when the moon comes between it and the earth. People used to associate this unusual phenomenon with some superstitious reason. It happened that the sun eclipsed on the day the Prophet’s sonIbrahim died inMadinah, so some people attributed that to his death. Hence, the Prophet took the opportunity to correct the people’s mistaken notion about the solar eclipse.
The Prophet ordered someone to announce “as-salatujami`ah,” that is that Prayer is to be convened in public. When people gathered, he led them in Prayer after which he stated:“The solar or lunar eclipse is only a sign of Allah. They do not take place for the death or life of anybody. Whenever you see them, hasten to the Prayer.”(Reported by Muslim)
Salat al-kusoof (solar eclipse Prayer) issunnah mu’akkadah(confirmed sunnah) for both male and female believers. It is better to offer it congregationally in the mosque. Its time is from the beginning of the eclipse till it clears away. There is no adhan for the Prayer, but it should be announced, as stated earlier, with“as-salatu jami`ah.”
According to thehadith, narrated by `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her),salat al-kusoof is tworak`ahs; however, the worshiper bows twice in each rak`ahinstead of once.
In the first rak`ah,after al-Fatihah, one recites a long or shortsurah. One then says“allahu akbar” and bows down in a long bowing. As one rises up, one says: “sami`Allahu limanhamidah, rabbanalakal-hamd.”
One then says“Allahu akbar” and bows down a second time but not so long. As one rises up one says, “sami` Allahuliman hamidah,rabbana lakal-hamd.”
As one resumes standing straight, one says “allahu akbar”and then falls down in prostration. One begins the secondrak`ah by saying“allahu akbar” The second rak`ah should be observed like the first one. After the Prayer, the imam may give a guiding sermon.
Salat al-khusoof(lunar eclipse Prayer) is the same assalatal-kusoof (solar eclipse Prayer). The recital of al-Fatihahmay be performed aloud or silently.