We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning & don't appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions. Read More>>

Looking For Something at vustudents.ning.com? Click Here to Search

www.bit.ly/vucodes

+ Link For Assignments, GDBs & Online Quizzes Solution

www.bit.ly/papersvu

+ Link For Past Papers, Solved MCQs, Short Notes & More

Infection by the liver fluke parasite is a major health concern for millions of people, specifically those living in the Far East, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia. In addition, because of the large amount of travel between countries, liver fluke infection is becoming more prominent in areas where the disease has not previously been found, such as in North America. There are several kinds of medical conditions that people infected by the parasite may experience, each dependent on the kind of parasite that has embedded itself into its host.

                    

The sheep liver fluke, also called the Fasciola hepatica, and the Fasciola gigantica, are two kinds of parasites that typically infect herbivores – like sheep – but can also cause infection in humans. Usually, the eggs of the liver fluke are discharged in the stool of an infected animal. The eggs then embryonate in water, releasing miracidia, and then infect a snail as the intermediate host. Once inside the snail, the parasite transforms itself into metacercariae until it is ready to release itself from the snail and wait on plant life, such as watercress, for unsuspecting herbivores or humans to eat it. The animal, or the human, eats the plant and consequently, the parasite, and becomes infected.

In humans, it takes the nearly three to four months for the metacercariae to develop into an adult liver fluke of the F. hepatica or the F. gigantica varieties. However, once they are fully grown, they can be 30 – 75 mm, respectively. The related medical condition is called fasciolasis. Fascioliasis is most common where cattle and sheep are raised and where humans consume watercress. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, and eosinophilia; however, nearly 50% of those affected do not have any symptoms at all.

The other common parasites that cause liver fluke infection are the Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis felineus. They are endemic in nature in areas of Eastern Europe and East Asia. One 2001 study in Thailand has concluded that nearly 6 million individuals have Opisthorchiasis, an infection due to liver fluke. Most often, infection occurs where cyprinoid fish that is uncooked is common in the diet.

Because this variety of parasite is foodborne, they are very common. For example, if there is inadequate sanitation and poor infrastructure for raw sewage, humans can easily become infected with the C. sinensis and O. viverrini liver fluke parasites. The eggs of the parasites pass into the sources of water through feces where they attach to snails. When they release themselves from the snails as cercariae, they find the cyprinoid fish as hosts. There they attach to the fish skin, fins, and muscles and transform into metacercariae and when humans consume the raw fish, they become infected with the liver fluke and the related disease, Opisthorchiasis.

Again, most people who are affected by liver flukes or who have Opisthorchiasis do not have any symptoms. However, those who are infected can suffer from abdominal pain, fatigue, and enlarged gall bladder In addition, the parasites O. viverrini and C. sinensis are considered carcinogens, and may cause cancer. Luckily, there are some pharmaceuticals that may help cure those affected by the liver fluke parasites.

Source: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-liver-fluke.htm

+ How to Follow the New Added Discussions at Your Mail Address?

+ How to Join Subject Study Groups & Get Helping Material?

+ How to become Top Reputation, Angels, Intellectual, Featured Members & Moderators?

+ VU Students Reserves The Right to Delete Your Profile, If?


See Your Saved Posts Timeline

Views: 408

.

+ http://bit.ly/vucodes (Link for Assignments, GDBs & Online Quizzes Solution)

+ http://bit.ly/papersvu (Link for Past Papers, Solved MCQs, Short Notes & More)

+ Click Here to Search (Looking For something at vustudents.ning.com?)

+ Click Here To Join (Our facebook study Group)

Comment

You need to be a member of Virtual University of Pakistan to add comments!

Join Virtual University of Pakistan

Comment by ɖɒȠλɒȽɄɈɌȪɀȊ on March 30, 2013 at 1:00am

Na yar Na eho jai post na krya kro koi dil da kamzoor honda 

Comment by ɖɒȠλɒȽɄɈɌȪɀȊ on March 30, 2013 at 1:00am

O dil kharab kr ditta

Comment by + Iuuoɔǝut + on March 29, 2013 at 8:42pm

thanks friends

Comment by +♥ ÁŔZỠỠ ♥ on March 29, 2013 at 5:52pm

ufffffff

ya doctor b keya hal krty hain insan ka

Comment by + ħยƶმἶომ on March 29, 2013 at 5:50pm

Nice sharing...

Comment by + Almas on March 29, 2013 at 4:05pm

Dr cool boy

Comment by + Almas on March 29, 2013 at 4:05pm

Hehehehe

Comment by shabbir ghuman on March 29, 2013 at 12:15pm

yeh kaya insani engine khol kai rakh diya

Comment by + ! ! ! ! ! " ήόмί on March 29, 2013 at 11:37am

nice...

Comment by + 'DoLL Fãrî' Ҿ on March 29, 2013 at 8:46am

biology

Latest Activity

Profile Icon༺łℳℜ₳₦༻ immy, MUHAMMAD USMAN and Amina Azeem joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
4 hours ago
+ ! ! ! ! Mehαr Mαh꧂ replied to + "αяsαℓ " Ќąƶµяɨ •"'s discussion The World's most expensive Proposal
4 hours ago
+ ! ! ! ! Mehαr Mαh꧂ liked + "αяsαℓ " Ќąƶµяɨ •"'s discussion The World's most expensive Proposal
4 hours ago
+ ! ! ! ! Mehαr Mαh꧂ liked +***piya o ry piya***+'s discussion eng301 solution chahiyaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
4 hours ago
Mahay Jawad replied to Mian Ali's discussion MCM520 assignment 1 solution Fall 2019 in the group MCM520 Contemporary Mass Media
5 hours ago
Profile IconMahay Jawad and kaaydeen 786 joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
5 hours ago
Ali Khan joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
6 hours ago
Prince Allen replied to ayesha's discussion CS607 Assignment No.1 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 15-11-2019 in the group CS607 Artificial Intelligence
6 hours ago
Prince Allen joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
6 hours ago
Rehana Awan BSSE(7th semester) replied to +¢αяєℓєѕѕ gιяℓ's discussion CS506 - Web Design and Development Assignment No.1 Due Date Nov 15, 2019 in the group CS506 Web Design and Development
7 hours ago
Rehana Awan BSSE(7th semester) replied to + M.Tariq Malik's discussion CS311 Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 15-11-2019 in the group CS311 Introduction to Web Services Development
7 hours ago
Rehana Awan BSSE(7th semester) joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
7 hours ago
Rehana Awan BSSE(7th semester) replied to + M.Tariq Malik's discussion CS605 Software Engineering-II Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion in the group CS605 Software Engineering-II
7 hours ago
kaaydeen 786 replied to Mian Ali's discussion MCM520 assignment 1 solution Fall 2019 in the group MCM520 Contemporary Mass Media
7 hours ago
ALEEM QAMAR replied to + M.Tariq Malik's discussion MTH302 Business Mathematics & Statistics Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion in the group MTH302 Business Mathematics & Statistics
7 hours ago
ALEEM QAMAR joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
7 hours ago
Muhammad Azeem joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
7 hours ago
Hannah chaudhary updated their profile
8 hours ago
Ikra butt posted a status
"https://youtu.be/ItfTdt9kJik mgt211 gdb solution 2019 correct solution"
8 hours ago

Today Top Members 

© 2019   Created by + M.Tariq Malik.   Powered by

Promote Us  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service